Clinical Relevance

A well-polished cement surface increases the viability and spreading of gingival fibroblasts. The tested resin composite cements did not reveal any cytotoxic effects.



This in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of cement type and roughness on the viability and cell morphology of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1).

Methods and Materials:

Discs of three adhesive (Panavia V5 [PV5], Multilink Automix [MLA], RelyX Ultimate [RUL] and three self-adhesive (Panavia SA plus [PSA], SpeedCem plus [SCP], RelyX Unicem [RUN]) resin composite cements were prepared with three different roughnesses using silica paper grit P180, P400, or P2500. The cement specimens were characterized by surface roughness and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic mapping. A viability assay was performed after 24 hours of incubation of HGF-1 cells on cement specimens. Cell morphology was examined with scanning electron microscopy.


The roughness of the specimens did not differ significantly among the different resin composite cements. Mean Ra values for the three surface treatments were 1.62 ± 0.34 μm for P180, 0.79 ± 0.20 μm for P400, and 0.17 ± 0.08 μm for P2500. HGF-1 viability was significantly influenced by the cement material and the specimens' roughness, with the highest viability for PSA ≥ RUN = MLA ≥ SCP = PV5 > RUL (p<0.05) and for P2500 = P400 > P180 (p<0.001). Cell morphology did not vary among the materials but was affected by the surface roughness.


The composition of resin composite cements significantly affects the cell viability of HGF-1. Smooth resin composite cement surfaces with an Ra of 0.2-0.8 μm accelerate flat cell spreading and formation of filopodia.

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