Clinical Relevance

The photo-initiator system based on an advanced polymerization system may be an alternative that can be used to overcome the disadvantages of radicular dentin, especially for the apical third.



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of universal adhesives with different photo-initiator systems applied in etch-and-rinse (ER) and self-etch (SE) modes on dentin interaction (push-out bond strength [PBS], nanoleakage [NL], and degree of conversion [DC] within the hybrid layer) in the different root thirds after fiber post cementation.

Methods and Materials:

Roots of endodontically prepared human premolars were randomly divided into six groups according to one of three adhesive systems (Scotchbond Universal [SBU], Ambar Universal [AMB], and Ambar Universal APS [AMB-APS]) and two adhesive strategies (ER and SE) for each system. Posts were cemented, and PBS was tested at 0.5 mm/min. The NL was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. DC was measured using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05).


AMB-APS showed similar performance in all root thirds (p>0.05) and higher values of DC, especially in the apical third (p<0.0001). AMB and SBU showed the lowest values in the apical third (p<0.0001).


The APS photo-initiator system contained in universal adhesives is a feasible alternative for improving radicular bonding procedure.

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