The literature reviewed suggests that airborne particle abrasion has no negative effects on the bond strength of resin-based materials to dentin and that a positive influence on dentin bond strength was only achieved in specific air-abrasion conditions.
In this systematic review the authors investigated how airborne-particle abrasion (APA) using aluminum oxide affects the bond strength of resin-based materials to dentin. The search was performed in three databases. In vitro studies (Type of study) comparing the bond strength of resin-based materials (Outcome) to air-abraded (Intervention) compared with non–air-abraded (Comparison) human dentin (Population) were included (the PICOT elements are given parenthetically). From 5437 unique articles, 65 were read in full, 33 were included in the qualitative synthesis, and 32 were included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic quality and risk of bias were assessed. Comparisons were performed between air-abraded and control dentin groups by adopting a random-effects model (α=0.05). Additional analyses were carried out for the different parameters used in APA: type of surface treatment in the control group, particle size, air pressure, and APA duration. The bond strength to air-abraded dentin was favored only when the control surface was treated with a hand excavator. For particle size, APA was favored when the particle size was >30 μm and the controls were no treatment or hand excavator or when the particle size was ≤ 30 μm and the control was bur. In addition, the results favored air-abraded groups only when the pressure was > 5 bar and bur was used in the control group. No significant differences were observed for duration of APA. No comparison on bond strength considering the presence of aging conditions was possible in the included studies due to the low number of studies that aged the specimens. In conclusion, APA had no negative effects on the bond strength of resin-based materials to dentin and was able to improve the dentin bond strength only when the particle size was > 30 μm and air pressure was > 5 bar. PROSPERO registration protocol: CRD42018096128