The objective of this study was to evaluate the aging effects of long-term exposure to acidic beverages on the flexural strength (FS) and chemical reactions of two resin-based composites (RBCs) and one giomer. The FS of composite specimen bars (2 mm × 2 mm × 25 mm) was measured using a universal testing machine at various levels of thermocycling (TC; 0, 10,000, 50,000, and 100,000 cycles) in two beverages with different pH values (distilled water [DW], pH 7.0; Coca-Cola, pH 2.4–2.8). The FS data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance with the post hoc Tukey test and t-test at a significance level of a=0.05. In DW, the FS of an RBC and a giomer did not decrease until 10,000 cycles. The other RBC, Z250, decreased rapidly until 50,000 cycles (p<0.05), followed by no additional decrease until 100,000 cycles. In Coca-Cola, the FS of two RBCs and a giomer decreased more rapidly than in DW from 10,000 cycles (t-test, p<0.05). In Coca-Cola, the increased porosity observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the changes of the hydroxyl peak at 3340 cm−1 and ester peak at 1730–1700 cm−1 in Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (FTIR-ATR) spectra, and the continuous increase of the Si-O/Si-C peak height ratio from 10,000 cycles to 100,000 cycles in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested an increased loss of silane-carbon bond between the matrix and fillers of the Z250 RBC, compared to those in DW. In conclusion, when TC was performed in DW, unreacted monomers and a coupling agent were washed out, which caused porosity and reduced FS. In Coca-Cola, acidic conditions accelerated the removal of the matrix through the hydrolysis reaction at the ester groups, resulting in more porosity and a faster decrease in FS than in DW.

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