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Polymerization shrinkage of conventional resin-based composites can cause cuspal deflection and be associated with enamel cracking, cusp or tooth fracture, and changes in occlusion. High-viscosity bulk-fill resin composites may produce less cuspal deflection than a conventional incrementally placed resin composite.

Fluorescent camera caries detectors can be used to assess the effectiveness of resin infiltration in improving the optic properties of white spot lesions. Clinicians can use a fluorescent camera to demonstrate early lesions to patients.

Short curing times of 10-20 seconds may be insufficient for an optimal polymerization, especially under nonideal clinical conditions (eg, variable distance and angulation of the curing unit tip).

Fiber-reinforced fixed dental prosthesis using the direct restorative technique may be accomplished with ideal contours and tooth morphology when a proper material selection and a step-by-step protocol is followed. This option becomes useful as an interim restoration in many clinical situations.

A polished/smooth surface is mandatory for maintaining clinical health of restored teeth. However, this review depicts the absence of reliable data that characterize and elucidate the mechanism related to the effect of surface properties on bacterial adhesion/biofilm formation.



Translucent zirconia has become esthetic, make it a viable alternative for the manufacturing of ultrathin veneers.


Repairing defective composite resin and amalgam restorations is a safe and effective treatment that might increase restoration longevity.

Infiltration anesthesia over the midpoint of the line connecting the root apexes of two adjacent teeth causes less reduction of pulpal blood flow.

Use of a hybrid light (laser/LED) for in-office dental bleaching shows the same degree of color change with lower bleaching time and sensitivity compared with conventional in-office bleaching.


Thanks to new composite resins and dental ceramics, an excellent esthetic may be clinically combined with outstanding functional features in terms of their wear behavior, which proved to be very similar to that of the well-known traditional gold alloys.

Vital tooth bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide or 40% hydrogen peroxide increased both the surface roughness and biofilm formation on resin composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement restorative materials, suggesting that existing restorations should be polished or replaced after bleaching.

The use of NaOCl at the interface of resin and eroded dentin may be a viable alternative to minimize the degradation of the etch-and-rinse and self-etch resin−dentin interfaces.

Light curing of pulp-capping materials caused deformation of pulpal dentin and increased pulpal temperature by light curing and exotherm effects. The use of Vitrebond or Ultra-Blend Plus in deep cavities resulted in better performance through a combination of high degree of cure, lower temperature, and dentin strain.

The biomechanical performance of composite resins is strongly influenced by the type of cavity preparation used. Using flat surface preparation to test different composite types may underestimate the effect of C-factor, stress, and shrinkage of composite resins.

Silica-based glass ceramics restorations achieve clinically acceptable, enamel-like roughness and gloss by either glazing or manual finishing and polishing. The latter can be considered an adequate procedure, comparable to furnace-based restorations, and this is noteworthy for chairside monolithic restorations.

Glycolic acid is a mild etchant that effectively etches enamel and dentin surfaces, a necessary step to successfully placing dental adhesive restorations.


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