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The increasing trend toward composite posterior restorations in an educational environment during a 13-year period may reflect movement toward an amalgam-free era.

Providing longer exposure durations can be an efficient strategy to compensate for attenuated light through ceramic restorative materials in order to achieve a high degree of conversion. However, continuous irradiation with high irradiances for long durations will yield a higher temperature. Providing pauses in the irradiation to avoid continuous accumulation of energy that increases the temperature is recommended.

After two years of water aging, the application of nonthermal atmospheric plasma onto dentin for 30 s showed higher microtensile bond strength of a multimode adhesive applied in etch-and-rinse mode. Plasma-treated dentin also resulted in higher nanohardness and Young's modulus of the hybrid layer in immediate evaluation and greater hydrophilicity.

Although amalgam is being phased out, existing amalgam fillings will still be present for many years. Clinicians should be aware that amalgam expansion may create stress conditions that accelerate tooth cracking.

The application of dental varnish containing fluoride on demineralized dentin can remineralize and protect dentin lesions, but there might be no additional benefit to incorporating calcium and phosphate to enhance the remineralization of dentin caries.



Ankylosed posterior teeth impede tooth stability in the arch. The literature does not offer evidence regarding the predictability of ankylosed tooth restorations. Additional retention through mini fiberglass posts for composites may be indicated to improve the long-term prognosis.


Accurate reproduction of the jaw relationship is important in many fields of dentistry. Maximum intercuspation can be registered with digital buccal scan procedures implemented in the workflow of many intraoral scanning systems.

Mild one-step self-etch adhesive can be an alternative to resin-modified glass ionomer cement with similar retention and improved esthetics in noncarious cervical lesions.


For both stratified and machined porcelains, polishing as a finishing technique promotes smoother surfaces with higher surface free energy and decreasing microorganism adhesion.

Additional silane treatment prior to the application of universal adhesive is necessary to improve the bonding longevity to lithium disilicate glass ceramic.

We recommend the use of calcium silicate-based cement as a cervical barrier when performing intracoronal bleaching using a mixture of sodium perborate with water or 3% hydrogen peroxide.

Polymerization shrinkage at 37°C with light application 5 minutes after mixing ranges from 4.0% to 5.8%. Light application performed as soon as possible after placing a restoration minimizes cement shrinkage.

In high C-factor cavities, the incremental technique for composite restoration showed a higher bond strength on the cavity floor than did the bulk-fill technique. However, in low C-factor cavities, there was no statistical difference in the bond strength between the two techniques.

Color and translucency of resin-based composites (RBCs) vary among the different shades within each product line. These differences do not always follow the order of the shade numbers. Clinicians should be aware of the optical characteristics of individual RBC products to achieve predictable results.

Interfacial integrity of Class II restorations is improved by the use of flowable composite liners, particularly those with low filler content. Giomer restorations had significantly less microleakage than those restored with nano-filled composites.

Current versions of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements used with atraumatic restorative treatment show comparable bonding to normal and caries-affected dentin.


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