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ISSN 0361-7734
eISSN 1559-2863


The prefilled disposable tray can be used to decrease self-reported tooth sensitivity without influencing the bleaching efficacy.

Regular nanofilled and regular bulk-fill resin composites showed good clinical performances for restoring noncarious cervical lesions of different sizes after 1 year.

Defects introduced by hydrofluoric acid etching can propagate when the assembly is subjected to aging and fatigue stimuli, impairing its mechanical performance.

Both bulk-fill and conventional composite resins showed a clinically successful performance in Class II restorations over a two-year period, unlike the high-viscosity glass ionomer.


Mild to moderate fluorosis spots can be satisfactorily masked by combining a bleaching and resin infiltration technique, quantitation of which can be done by a simple technique of color analysis of photographs using Adobe Photoshop software.

The combination of underlying resin infiltration and direct composite veneers presents a minimally invasive alternative for the correction of tooth color and shape in cases of developmental enamel defects, such as severe dental fluorosis in adolescent patients.


Class II restorations using low-shrinkage resin composites showed satisfactory clinical performance after one year.

Literature Review

3D printing has been found to exhibit properties and performance comparable or superior to those of traditional manufacturing processes. Additive manufacturing has the potential to overcome the disadvantages of the subtractive production method.

Bulk-fill restorative resin-based composites (RBCs), though stiffer than their flowable and conventional counterparts, were mostly weaker. Bulk-fill restorative RBCs should thus be used with caution in areas of high flexural stresses and an overlying final layer of conventional composite may be still be prudent.

Specimens with type II glass ionomer/proximal box elevation (PBE) behave similarly in terms of margin quality and fracture resistance to specimens restored with resin-based composite/PBE and without PBE. Dental professionals may elect type II glass ionomer/PBE in appropriate clinical situations.

The fluorescence-aided identification technique can be a useful and time-saving aid for the repair and replacement of direct composite restorations with the potential to preserve tooth substance and reduce the risk of treatment-related complications.

In addition to the layering technique, the use of flowable resin-based composites may also result in void formation in restorations.

Conventional phosphoric acid etching with reduced etching times and polyalkenoic acid etching for 15 seconds are potential optimal etching protocols to improve enamel bonding effectiveness with universal adhesives, unlike phosphoric acid ester monomer etching.

Clinicians should understand that degree of conversion (DC) of bulk-fill composites varies between flowable and sculptable materials. The technique of measurement significantly influences the reported values of DC.

The newer glass-ionomer restorative materials marketed for posterior stress-bearing areas may not provide any significant advantage in mechanical properties over other conventional glass-ionomer materials.

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