Clinical Relevance Using the deep margin elevation technique in preparations extending beyond the cemento-enamel junction appears to be beneficial in maintaining structural integrity of CAD/CAM-fabricated feldspathic ceramic inlays. SUMMARY Objective: To evaluate the effect of deep margin elevation on structural and marginal integrity of ceramic inlays. Methods and Materials: Forty extracted human third molars were collected and randomly separated into four groups (n=10/group). In group 1 (enamel margin group), the gingival margin was placed 1 mm supragingival to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). In group 2 (cementum margin group), the gingival margin was placed 2 mm below the CEJ. In group 3 (glass ionomer [GI] margin group), the gingival margin was placed 2 mm below the CEJ, and then the margin elevated with GI to the CEJ. In group 4 (resin-modified glass ionomer [RMGI] margin group), the gingival margin was placed 2 mm below the CEJ, and then the margin elevated with RMGI to the CEJ. Standardized ceramic class II inlays were fabricated with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and bonded to all teeth, and ceramic proximal box heights were measured. All teeth were subjected to 10,000 cycles of thermocycling (5°C/55°C) and then underwent 1,200,000 cycles of vertical chewing simulation at 50 N of force. Ceramic restorations and marginal integrity were assessed with a Hirox digital microscope. The Fisher exact test (two-tailed) with adjusted p -values (α=0.05) and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cementum margin group had a significantly higher ceramic fracture rate (90%) compared to other groups (10% in enamel margin and GI margin groups, p =0.007; 0% in RMGI group, p <0.001). Logistic regression showed that with increased ceramic proximal box heights, the probability of ceramic fracture increased dramatically. Conclusion: Deep marginal elevation resulted in decreased ceramic fracture when preparation margins were located below the CEJ. There was no difference found between margin elevation with GI or RMGI. Increased heights of ceramic proximal box may lead to an increased probability of ceramic fracture.
SUMMARY This randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficiency of maxillary infiltration anesthesia in carious teeth at two different injection sites and their impact on the laser Doppler recordings of pulpal blood flow (PBF) during a caries excavation procedure. The null hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in the efficiency of anesthesia and PBF reduction between maxillary infiltrations at the two injection sites. One hundred twenty patients were divided into three groups according to the degree of carious lesion of their maxillary left central incisors (moderate caries, deep caries, or no caries). Forty patients in each group randomly received infiltrations over the root apex of maxillary left central incisors (site X) or over the midpoint of the line connecting the root apexes of both maxillary left central and lateral incisors (site Y) using 0.9 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline. Teeth were pulp tested at five-minute intervals after injection except for the period of cavity cutting, which was done 12 minutes after injection. The PBF changes after injection were monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. The observation period in this study was 60 minutes. Success of anesthesia was defined as no or mild pain on cavity cutting by visual analog scale recordings. Deep caries group showed significantly higher baseline PBF ( p <0.05). All groups showed 100% success of anesthesia and similar duration time ( p >0.05). Subgroups that had the injection at site Y showed significantly less reduction of PBF ( p <0.05). Cavity-cutting procedures increased the amplitude of the PBF around the lowest value after injection. Independent of the cavity depth, carious anterior teeth anesthetized by infiltration further from the apex had significantly less reduction on the pulpal blood flow compared with teeth anesthetized by infiltration at the apex.