SUMMARY Objectives: It has been reported that bleaching generates an increase in the activity of osteoclasts in vitro . We quantified the RANK-L and IL-1β biomarkers in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial evaluating the in vivo effect of hydrogen peroxide (35%) and peroxide carbamide (37%) six months after whitening. Methods and Materials: Fifty volunteers participated, each with color change in a nonvital tooth. Fifty teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=25), and the teeth were bleached using either 35% hydrogen peroxide (G1) or 37% carbamide peroxide (G2). Intracoronal bleaching was carried out by a technical “walking bleach” over four sessions. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected and used to quantify the IL-1β and RANK-L secreted levels. Samples of six periodontal sites (three vestibular and three palatal) were collected for up to six months (at the beginning of the study [baseline] and at one week, one month, and six months posttreatment). The color change was visually monitored using the Vita Bleached Guide (ΔSGU). Results: Comparing each time to baseline assessment, a significant increase in the levels of IL-1β and RANK-L across time points was detected ( p <0.05). The color change was 4 in G1 and G2, and a statistically significant difference ( p <0.05) was found at the month time point between the groups. Using the Spearman test, a strong correlation (>0.8) between the IL-1β and RANK-L levels in both groups at all time points was detected. Conclusions: Nonvital bleaching using a technical walking bleach induces an increase in the IL-1β and RANKL production in periodontal tissues, which persists for six months after treatment. Both biomarkers were highly correlated in both groups and at all time points.
SUMMARY Objective: This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide in comparison with 37% carbamide peroxide in a nonvital bleaching technique of “walking bleaching” (four sessions of treatment) on periodontal markers: nuclear factor kappa B-ligand (RANK-L—process of root resorption marker) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β—inflammatory response marker). Methods and Materials: Fifty volunteers presenting with discoloration of nonvital teeth and endodontic treatment in good condition participated. Fifty teeth were randomly divided into two study groups according to bleaching gel: HP = 35% hydrogen peroxide (n=25) and 37% carbamide peroxide (n=25). Nonvital bleaching was performed with a walking bleaching technique consisting of four sessions of bleach application. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were taken in order to quantify the RANK-L and IL-1β levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were obtained from six periodontal sites for each bleached tooth: three vestibular and three palatine (mesial, middle, and distal) at seven time periods: baseline, after each of the four sessions of nonvital bleaching, at one week, and at one month after nonvital bleaching. Tooth color variations were analyzed in each session by VITA Bleachedguide 3D-MASTER (ΔSGU). Results: Significant increments in the RANK-L and IL-1β levels were detected in each evaluated time compared with baseline ( p <0.05); however, no differences were detected between hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide on increments of the biomarkers studied. The change of color was effective for both nonvital bleaching therapies ( p <0.05). Conclusions: Nonvital bleaching induced a significant increment in the RANK-L and IL-1β levels in periodontal tissues around bleached, nonvital teeth.