Clinical Relevance A well-polished cement surface increases the viability and spreading of gingival fibroblasts. The tested resin composite cements did not reveal any cytotoxic effects. SUMMARY Objective: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of cement type and roughness on the viability and cell morphology of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1). Methods and Materials: Discs of three adhesive (Panavia V5 [PV5], Multilink Automix [MLA], RelyX Ultimate [RUL] and three self-adhesive (Panavia SA plus [PSA], SpeedCem plus [SCP], RelyX Unicem [RUN]) resin composite cements were prepared with three different roughnesses using silica paper grit P180, P400, or P2500. The cement specimens were characterized by surface roughness and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic mapping. A viability assay was performed after 24 hours of incubation of HGF-1 cells on cement specimens. Cell morphology was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Results: The roughness of the specimens did not differ significantly among the different resin composite cements. Mean Ra values for the three surface treatments were 1.62 ± 0.34 μm for P180, 0.79 ± 0.20 μm for P400, and 0.17 ± 0.08 μm for P2500. HGF-1 viability was significantly influenced by the cement material and the specimens’ roughness, with the highest viability for PSA ≥ RUN = MLA ≥ SCP = PV5 > RUL ( p <0.05) and for P2500 = P400 > P180 ( p <0.001). Cell morphology did not vary among the materials but was affected by the surface roughness. Conclusion: The composition of resin composite cements significantly affects the cell viability of HGF-1. Smooth resin composite cement surfaces with an Ra of 0.2–0.8 μm accelerate flat cell spreading and formation of filopodia.
SUMMARY Objectives: To investigate failure loads of monolithic and veneered all-ceramic crowns after root canal treatment and to analyze marginal integrity of repair fillings. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two human molars were restored with monolithic (Zr-All) or veneered (Zr-Ven) zirconia crowns. Molars were assigned to six groups (n=12 per group) depending on restoration material, access type (no access cavity [control] or endodontic treatment [test]), and type of filling (one-step [1-st] or two-step [2-st]). For type of filling, molars were treated using a self-etch universal adhesive and cavities were either filled with layered composite (1-st) or filled until the crown material was reached, which was additionally conditioned and then filled (2-st). Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the restoration margins was performed before and after thermomechanical loading (TML), and the percentage of continuous margins was assessed. Crowns were then loaded to failure. Results: Preparation of the access cavity required more time in monolithic (445 s) than in veneered crowns (342 s). Loads to failure were higher in control groups (Zr-All: 5814 N; Zr-Ven: 2133 N) and higher in monolithic test (2985 N) than in veneered test crowns (889 N). In monolithic crowns, 1-st had lower fracture loads than 2-st fillings (2149 N vs 3821 N). Continuous margins of 66% to 71% were achieved, which deteriorated after TML by 39% to 40% in Zr-All, by 34% in Zr-Ven-1-st, and by 24% in Zr-Ven-2-st. Conclusions: Endodontic access and adhesive restorations resulted in reduced fracture load in monolithic and veneered zirconia crowns. Two-step fillings provided higher fracture loads in Zr-All and better marginal quality in Zr-Ven crowns.