SUMMARY Objective: To evaluate the effect of root dentin treatment on the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement after 24 hours and after 6 months. Methods: A total of 48 single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated and divided into four groups (n=12): Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose + RelyX ARC (ARC); RelyX U200 (U200); EDTA + RelyX U200 (EU200); and phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) + RelyX U200 (HU200). After filling the roots, an Exacto No. 2 fiber post was cleaned, treated with silane (60 seconds), positioned, and light cured (LED; 60 seconds at 1200 mW/cm 2 ). After storage (37°C/24 h), the roots were cut to obtain two discs (1 mm) of each third. They were stored in distilled water (24 hours at 37°C); one disc of each root-third was subjected to the push-out test (0.5 mm/min) at 24 hours and the other disc after six months of water storage (37°C). The data on the root-thirds were averaged for statistical purposes. The average values of bond strength (MPa) were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls (5%). Results: There were statistical differences for the treatment of dentin ( p <0.001), for time ( p =0.003), and the interaction of treatment and time ( p =0.017). After 24 hours, we observed lower bond strength in the HU200 group when compared with other groups (ARC, U200, and EU200). After six months, HU200 showed the lowest bond strength. Higher strengths were observed for EU200 and U200 similarly, which were higher than ARC. Conclusion: The bonding of the self-adhesive resin cement varied over time in the tested groups.