Abstract

A single specimen of Neamia xenica, new species, was collected at 93 m utilizing mixed-gas rebreathers. This cardinalfish has pored lateral-line scales (extending from the posttemporal to caudal fin) at a smaller length than in Neamia articycla, a quasi-ovoid cluster of melanophores on the opercle without associated narrow dark marks (a round or oval dark opercular spot with pale outer region outlined with narrow dark marks in N. articycla and N. notula, respectively), and 14 pectoral fin-rays (14 fin rays in N. articycla and N. notula and 17–21 fin rays in N. octospina). Dorsal and anal insertion patterns of supraneurals, pterygiophores, and vertebral spines are reported for all species of Neamia. Species of Apogonichthys with 14 pectoral-fin rays may be confused with species of Neamia but do not have an opercular spot and have five free hypurals.

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