Procambarus (O.) pearsei is endemic to several river basins in southeastern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina, with most of its range in the former state. It was described over 75 years ago, but the original description lacked many salient taxonomic features and very little else has been published about the species. Recent examination of the two primary type specimens, and an additional 296 specimens from all three of the river basins to which the species is restricted, has prompted a redescription that diagnoses and illustrates the species, provides distributional data and color notes, describes the previously neglected form-II male, assesses the location of the nebulous type locality, and provides some information on the biology of the species.

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