The nomenclatural history of the small Antillean species that now goes by the name Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri is briefly summarized. The type material of Puffinus lherminieri Lesson, 1839, supposed to be in a museum in Rochefort, France, could not be located and is presumed lost. The stated type locality “ad ripas Antillarum” is so general as to encompass almost the entire breeding range of the species, which is widely distributed in the Antillean region and has been regarded as showing variation meriting subspecific designation. Although the type locality was apparently legitimately restricted to Guadeloupe in 1948 or earlier, it was elsewhere erroneously restricted to “Straits of Florida” from 1931 to 1998 and up to the present. To resolve these numerous conflicts and uncertainties, a neotype collected in Saint Barthélemy, once administratively part of Guadeloupe, is here designated.