We describe three new species of frogs in the asterophryine microhylid genus Cophixalus from New Guinea's central cordillera. All three are characterized by their very small size (adult body length < 18 mm), reduced first fingers, narrow ridges on the dorsum, and having terminal discs on the fingers smaller than or the same size as those on the toes. They were found on the forest floor or on low vegetation in montane rainforest, where males called at night during or after heavy rain. Each of the new species is known only from one or two locations within a small area of central Papua New Guinea, although the extent of suitable habitat in the region suggests that their distributions may be broader. This study brings to 51 the number of described Cophixalus species known from the New Guinea region, but numerous additional undescribed forms reside in museum collections awaiting formal description, and others undoubtedly await discovery in their natural habitats.