Abstract

Groundwaters are globally characterized by the presence of a high diversity of crustacean species. The current knowledge about these environments in South America is limited. The objective of this study is to compile a checklist of crustacean species reported from Chilean groundwaters. We found sixty publications about the groundwater fauna in Chile. A total of 46 species belonging to the families Canthocamptidae, Bogidiellidae, Falklandellidae, Phreatogammaridae, Paraleptamphopidae, Ingolfiellidae, Stygocarididae, Bathynellidae, Parabathynellidae, and Parastacidae occur between 24° S and 50° S. The present study indicates that it is necessary to conduct more research towards a comprehensive knowledge about the groundwater crustaceans of Chile.

Groundwaters are one of the most important freshwater resources. Groundwaters contain a fauna composed by different taxonomic groups such as the Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Hydracarina, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Crustacea (Gilbert & Deharveng 2002). Crustacea is commonly represented by the classes Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, and Malacostraca, and subclass Copepoda, (Creuzé des Châteliers et al. 2009, Galassi et al. 2009, Malard et al. 2009, Maurice 2009, Maurice & Bloomfield 2012). Members of these taxa can be permanent or temporal components of the groundwater communities (Brancelj & Dumont 2007). Many of these groups are relictual or exhibit phylogenetic isolation, and in some cases, high endemism has been reported (Gilbert & Deharveng 2002). Nevertheless, the knowledge is limited (Maurice & Bloomfield 2012), and distribution records are fragmentary (Knight & Penk 2010, Camacho et al. 2012, Fernández 2004).

Chile has a marked latitudinal gradient (Fig.1) with various water bodies (Niemeyer & Cereceda 1984, De los Ríos–Escalante et al. 2013) such as saline lakes and ephemeral rivers in the north (18–27° S), rivers originating from rains and summer thaws and reservoirs in the central regions (27–39° S), rivers from lake effluents and deep lakes with rivers in southern central Patagonia (39–51° S), and rivers originating from rains and summer thaws and shallow permanent or ephemeral lagoons in southern Patagonia (51–55° S). However, there are few studies about the Chilean subterranean waters and most of these studies are focused on the hydrological processes and physico–chemical parameters with the objective of providing freshwater resources for the population (Arumí & Oyarzún 2006, Arumí et al. 2012).

Fig. 1

Map with localization of Chilean continental territory.

Fig. 1

Map with localization of Chilean continental territory.

The objective of this study is to compile a checklist of groundwater crustaceans and to provide distribution maps of the species occurring in Chilean groundwaters.

Materials and Methods

This checklist is based on data extracted from published literature containing references to crustaceans from the limnic groundwater of caves (Brehier et al., 2010) and interstitial environments close to streams, rivers, and lakes of the Chilean continental territory (Mrázek 1901, Noodt 1959, 1961, 1963a, 1963b, 1965a, 1965b, 1971, Löffler 1962, 1966, Ebert & Noodt 1975, Camacho 2006, Rudolph & Crandall 2012, Rudolph 2013, Pérez–Schultheiss 2013a, 2013b). This checklist does not include those species in which information is insufficient or unclear. The classification of the crustacean species follows WORMS (2015).

Results

A total of 46 species of Copepoda, Amphipoda, Syncarida, and Decapoda was recorded. The presentation of our data follows the taxonomic hierarchy of the systematic list presented below.

Systematic list

Copepoda Milne Edwards, 1840

Harpacticoida Sars, 1903

Canthocamptidae Brady, 1880

Antarctobiotus Chappuis, 1930

A. bahamondei Ebert & Noodt, 1975 

Attheyella (Chappuisella) Chappuis, 1939 

A. biarticulata Löffler, 1962 

A. bullata Ebert & Noodt, 1975 

A. camposi Ebert & Noodt, 1975 

A. ciliata Löffler, 1962 

A. crenulata Mrázek, 1901 

A. chilensis Ebert & Noodt, 1975 

A. hannae Kiefer, 1926 

A. incae Brehm 1936 

A. laciniata Ebert & Noodt, 1975 

A. lanata Mrázek, 1901 

A. nuda Löffler, 1962 

A. oculta Kiefer 1926 

A. palustris Chappuis, 1939 

A. levigata Löffler, 1962 

A. ornata Löffler, 1962 

A. pichilafquensis Löffler, 1962 

A. quillehuensis Löffler, 1962 

A. serrata Löffler, 1962 

A. viviani Ebert & Noodt, 1975 

A. wieseri Löffler, 1962 

Epactophanes Bortuski, 1966

E. richardi Mrázek, 1893

Lofflerella Rouch, 1962

L. chilensis Löffler, 1966 

L. trisetosa Löffler, 1966 

L. rouchi Löffler, 1966 

Moraria Scott & Scott, 1963

M. neotropica Löffler, 1962 

M. kummeroworum Ebert & Nood, 1975 

Malacostraca Latreille, 1802

Peracarida Calman, 1904

Amphipoda Latreille, 1816

Senticaudata Lowry & Myers, 2013

Bogidiellidae Hertzog, 1936

Patagongidiella Grosso & Fernández, 1993

P. wefkoi Pérez–Schultheiss, 2013

Falklandellidae Lowry & Myers, 2012

Osornodella Pérez–Schultheiss, 2013

O. gabrielae Pérez–Schultheiss, 2013

Phreatogammaridae Bousfield, 1983

Ruffia Bréhier, Vonk & Jaume, 2010 

R. patagonica Bréhier, Vonk & Jaume, 2010 

Paraleptamphopidae Bousfield, 1983

Rudolphia Grosso & Peralta, 2009 

R. macrodactylus Grosso & Peralta, 2009 

Pseudoingolfiellidae Lowry & Myers, 2012

Pseudoingolfiella Noodt, 1965

P. chilensis (Noodt, 1959)

Ingolfiellidea Hansen, 1903

Ingolfiellidae Hansen, 1903

Ingolfiella Hansen, 1903

I. manni Noodt 1961 

Syncarida Packard, 1885

Anaspidacea Calman, 1904

Anaspididae Thomson, 1893

Stygocarididae Noodt, 1963

Stygocaris Noodt, 1963

S. gomezmillasi Noodt, 1963

Oncostygocaris Schminke, 1980 

O. patagonica Noodt, 1963

Bathynellacea Chappuis, 1915

Bathynellidae Chappuis, 1915

Bathynella Vejdovsky, 1882

*B. grossei Noodt, 1965

B. cautinensis Noodt, 1965

Parabathynellidae Noodt, 1965

Atopobathynella Schminke, 1973

A. valdiviana (Noodt, 1965)

Chilibathynella Noodt, 1963

C. clandestina Noodt, 1963

Parvulobathynella Schminke, 1973

P. riegelorum (Noodt, 1965)

Eucarida Calman, 1904

Decapoda Latreille, 1802

Astacidea Latreille, 1802

Parastacoidea Huxley, 1879

Parastacidae Huxley, 1879.

Parastacus Huxley, 1879.

P. pugnax Poeppig,1835 

P. nicoleti (Philippi, 1882)

Virilastacus Hobbs, 1991 

V. araucanius (Faxon, 1914)

V. rucapihuelensis Rudolph & Crandall, 2005 

V. retamali Rudolph & Crandall, 2007 

V. jarai Rudolph & Crandall, 2012 

Literature records

Antarctobiotus bahamondei Ebert & Noodt, 1975 (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2

Distribution maps of the known groundwater Crustacea species of Chile: species of Antarctobiotus, Attheyella, Epactophanes, Lofflerella, Moraria, Patagongidiella, Osornodella, Ruffia and Rudolphia. 1) Antarctobiotus bahamondei, Attheyella bullata, Attheyella camposi, Attheyella crenulata, Attheyella chilensis, Attheyella ciliata, Attheyella incae, Attheyella laciniata (•); Attheyella biarticulata, Attheyella nuda, Attheyella ornata, Attheyella pichilafquensis (◼); Attheyella hannae, Attheyella oculta (▴); Attheyella lanata, Moraria neotropica (♦). 2) Attheyella palustris (•); Attheyella levigata, Attheyella serrata, Attheyella wieseri (◼); Attheyella quillehuensis (▴); Attheyella viviani (♦). 3) Epactophanes richardi (•); Lofflerella chilensis (◼); Lofflerella trisetosa, Lofflerella rouchi (▴); Moraria kummeroworum (♦). 4) Patagongidiella wefkoi (•); Osornodella gabrielae (◼); Ruffia patagónica (▴); Rudolphia macrodactylus (♦)

Fig. 2

Distribution maps of the known groundwater Crustacea species of Chile: species of Antarctobiotus, Attheyella, Epactophanes, Lofflerella, Moraria, Patagongidiella, Osornodella, Ruffia and Rudolphia. 1) Antarctobiotus bahamondei, Attheyella bullata, Attheyella camposi, Attheyella crenulata, Attheyella chilensis, Attheyella ciliata, Attheyella incae, Attheyella laciniata (•); Attheyella biarticulata, Attheyella nuda, Attheyella ornata, Attheyella pichilafquensis (◼); Attheyella hannae, Attheyella oculta (▴); Attheyella lanata, Moraria neotropica (♦). 2) Attheyella palustris (•); Attheyella levigata, Attheyella serrata, Attheyella wieseri (◼); Attheyella quillehuensis (▴); Attheyella viviani (♦). 3) Epactophanes richardi (•); Lofflerella chilensis (◼); Lofflerella trisetosa, Lofflerella rouchi (▴); Moraria kummeroworum (♦). 4) Patagongidiella wefkoi (•); Osornodella gabrielae (◼); Ruffia patagónica (▴); Rudolphia macrodactylus (♦)

Locality: Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Attheyella biarticulata Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Villarrica lake (39°16′S, 72°07′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella bullata Ebert & Noodt, 1975 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Attheyella camposi Ebert & Noodt, 1975 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Attheyella ciliata Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Villarrica lake (39°16′S, 72°07′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella crenulata Mrázek, 1901 (Fig. 2).

Locality: El Salto (33°03′S, 71°31′W) (Mrázek 1901).

Attheyella chilensis Ebert & Noodt, 1975 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Attheyella hannae Kiefer, 1926 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Valdivia (39°49′S, 73°15′W) (Kiefer 1926).

Attheyella incae Brehm, 1936 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Del Inca lagoon (33°10′S, 71°27′W) (Brehm 1936).

Attheyella laciniata Ebert & Noodt, 1975 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Attheyella lanata Mrázek, 1901 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Trafun lake (39°58′S, 72°28′W) (Mrázek 1901).

Attheyella nuda Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Villarrica lake (39°16′S, 72°07′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella oculta Kiefer, 1926 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Valdivia (39°49′S, 73°15′W) (Kiefer 1926).

Attheyella palustris Chappuis, 1939 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Calbuco (41°16′S, 72°32′W) (Chappuis 1939).

Attheyella levigata Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Puyehue lake (40°40′S, 72°28′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella ornata Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Villarrica lake (39°16′S, 72°07′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella pichilafquensis Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Pichilafquén lake (39°13′S, 72°40′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella quillehuensis Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quillehue lake (39°33′S, 71°32′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella serrata Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Puyehue lake (40°40′S, 72°28′W) (Löffler 1962).

Attheyella viviani Ebert & Noodt, 1975 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quebrada de la Plata (33°30′S, 70°54′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Attheyella wieseri Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Puyehue lake (40°40′S, 72°28′W) (Löffler 1962).

Epactophanes richardi Mrázek, 1893 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quebrada de la Plata (33°30′S, 70°54′W), Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Lofflerella chilensis Löffler, 1966 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Nahuelbuta National Park (37°47′S, 72°59′W), Valdivia (39°49′S, 73°15′W), Achao (42°28′S, 73°31′W) (Löffler 1966).

Lofflerella trisetosa Löffler, 1966 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Nahuelbuta National Park (37°47′S, 72°59′W) (Löffler 1966).

Lofflerella rouchi Löffler, 1966 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Nahuelbuta National Park (37°47′S, 72°59′W) (Löffler 1966).

Moraria neotropica Löffler, 1962 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Llanquihue lake (41°07′S, 72°50′W) (Löffler 1962).

Moraria kummeroworum Ebert & Nood, 1975 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Quebrada de la Plata (33°30′S, 70°54′W) (Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Patagongidiella wefkoi Pérez–Schultheiss, 2013 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Ñadi Pichidamas (40°40′S, 72°50′W) (Pérez–Schultheiss 2013b).

Osornodella gabrielae Pérez–Schultheiss, 2013 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Los Riscos (40°53′S, 73°29′W) (Pérez–Schultheiss 2013a).

Ruffia patagonica Bréhier, Vonk & Jaume, 2010 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Isla Madre de Dios (50°06′S, 75°14′W) (Bréhier et al. 2010).

Rudolphia macrodactylus Grosso & Peralta, 2009 (Fig. 2).

Locality: Rucapihuel (40°35′S, 73°34′W) (Grosso & Peralta 2009).

Pseudoingolfiella chilensis (Noodt, 1959) (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3

Distribution maps of the known groundwater Crustacea species of Chile: species of Atopobathynella, Bathynella, Chilibathynella, Ingolfiella, Oncostygocaris, Parastacus, Parvulobathynella, Pseudoingolfiella and Stygocaris. 1) Pseudoingolfiella chilensis (•); Ingolfiella manni (◼); Stygocaris gomez–millasi (▴); Oncostygocaris patagonica (♦). 2) Bathynella grossei, Bathynella cautinensis (•); Atopobathynella valdiviana (▴); Chilibathynella clandestina (▾); Parvulobathynella riegelorum (♦). 3) Parastacus pugnax (•). 4) Parastacus nicoleti (•).

Fig. 3

Distribution maps of the known groundwater Crustacea species of Chile: species of Atopobathynella, Bathynella, Chilibathynella, Ingolfiella, Oncostygocaris, Parastacus, Parvulobathynella, Pseudoingolfiella and Stygocaris. 1) Pseudoingolfiella chilensis (•); Ingolfiella manni (◼); Stygocaris gomez–millasi (▴); Oncostygocaris patagonica (♦). 2) Bathynella grossei, Bathynella cautinensis (•); Atopobathynella valdiviana (▴); Chilibathynella clandestina (▾); Parvulobathynella riegelorum (♦). 3) Parastacus pugnax (•). 4) Parastacus nicoleti (•).

Locality: Zapallar (32°32′S, 71°28′W), Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W), Niebla (39°51′S, 73°24′W), Ancud (41°52′S, 72°50′W) (Noodt 1959, 1965b, 1961, Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Ingolfiella manni Noodt, 1959 (Fig. 3).

Locality: Lomas de Paposo (24°56′S, 70°59′W) (Noodt 1959).

Stygocaris gomez–millasi Noodt, 1963 (Fig. 3).

Locality: Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Noodt 1963a, Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Oncostygocaris patagonica Noodt, 1963 (Fig. 3).

Locality: Simpson river (34 km from Puerto Aysén: 45°27′S, 72°19′W approx.) (Noodt 1963a, Schminke 1980, 1986).

*Bathynella grossei Noodt, 1965 (Fig. 3).

Locality: Villarrica lake (39°16′S, 72°07′W), Futa river (39°52′S, 72°15′W), Simpson river (34 km from Puerto Aysén: 45°27′S, 72°19′W approx.) (Noodt 1965a).

*Bathynella cautinensis Noodt, 1965 (Fig. 3).

Locality: Cautin river (38°45′S, 72°40′W) (Noodt 1965).

Atopobathynella valdiviana (Noodt, 1965) (Fig. 3).

Locality: Futa river (39°52′S, 72°15′W) (Noodt 1965a).

Chilibathynella clandestina Noodt, 1963 (Fig. 3).

Locality: Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W) (Noodt 1963a, Ebert & Noodt 1975).

Parvulobathynella riegelorum (Noodt, 1965) (Fig. 3).

Locality: Huasco river (28°34′S, 70°45′W), Limarí river (30°43′S, 71°45′W), Choapa river (31°42′S, 71°07′W), El Quisco (33°24′S, 71°42′W), Quebrada de Córdoba (33°26′S, 71°29′W), Las Cruces (33°29′S, 71°37′W) (Noodt 1965a, Schminke 2011).

Parastacus pugnax (Poeppig, 1835) (Fig. 3).

Locality: Aconcagua river (32°55′S, 71°18′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963), Valparaíso (33°03′S, 71°38′W) (Riek 1971), Quebrada de Córdoba (33°27′S, 71°38′W), El Tabo (33°29′S, 71°37′W), El Monte (33°41′S, 71°00′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963), Codegua (34°02′S, 70°39′W), Graneros (34°03′S, 70°43′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Torina Estate (34°21′S, 71°20′W), Bucalemu (34°38′S, 72°04′W), Quinahue (34°41′S, 71°20′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963), San Javier (35°36′S, 71°44′W), (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Talca (35°26′S, 71°40′W), Villa Alegre (35°42′S, 71°42′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963), Pahuil (35°43′S, 72°31′W), (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Pelluhue (35°47′S, 72°35′W) (Bahamonde 1961), Longaví (35°57′S, 71°40′W), Buchupureo (36°04′S, 72°47′W), Cobquecura (36°07′S, 72°47′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Parral (36°09′S, 71°50′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963, Crandall et al. 2000), Quirihue (36°16′S, 72°32′W), San Gregorio (36°17′S, 71°53′W), Mela (36°21′S, 72°51 W), Vegas del Itata (36°22′S, 72°51′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Tiuquilemu (36°22′S, 71°38′W) (Ibarra & Arana 2012), Boca del Itata (36°23′S, 72°52′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Guaraculen stream (36°24′S, 71°59′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963), Ninhue (36°24′S, 72°23′W), San Carlos (36°25′S, 71°57′W), Perales (36°25′S, 72°52′W), Purema (36°26′S, 72°53′W), Coelemu (36°29′S, 72°41′W), San Nicolás (36°30′S, 72°12′W), San Fabián (36°33′S, 71°32′W), Ñuble river (36°33′S, 72°10′W), Near Chillán (36°35′S, 72°01′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Chillán (36°36′S, 72°06′W) (Porter 1904, Bahamonde & López 1963), Quilmo (36°37′S, 72°09′W), Tomé (36°37′S, 72°56′W), Ranquil (36°38′S, 72°35′W), Viejo river (36°38′S, 72°16′W), Pinto way (36°39′S, 71°57′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Tumbes (36°40′S, 73°07′W) (Lenz 1902, Ortmann 1902), Penco (36°44′S, 72°59′W) (Llanos et al. 1990), Quillón (36°44′S, 72°28′W), (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Talcahuano (36°46′S, 73°07′W) (Poeppig 1835, Faxon 1898, Lönnberg 1898, Ortmann 1902, Porter 1904, Riek 1971), Montenegro (36°48′S, 72°03′W), Florida (36°48′S, 72°39′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), San Pedro (36°50′S, 73°06′W) (Bahamonde & López, 1963, Silva & Spoerer 2006), Maipo (36°54′S, 72°02′W), Hualqui (36°59′S, 72°55′W), Yungay (37°06′S, 72°01′W), Laraquete (37°10′S, 73°11′W), Santa Juana (37°11′S, 72°56′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Ramadillas (37°15′S, 73°15′W) (Rudolph et al. 1991), San Rosendo (37°15′S, 72°43′W), Carampangue (37°15′S, 73°13′W), Arauco (37°15′S, 73°15′W), Cancha Rayada (37°29′S, 72°17′W), La Suerte (37°33′S, 72°33′W) (Silva & Spoerer 2006), Angol (37°48′S, 72°43′W) (Rudolph & Ríos 1987), Cholchol (38°36′S, 72°51′W) (Crandall et al. 2000), Carahue (38°40′S, 73°09′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963, Silva & Spoerer 2006), Nehuentúe (38°43′S, 72°23′W) (Rudolph 1997, Silva & Spoerer 2006, Rudolph et al. 2007).

Parastacus nicoleti (Philippi, 1882) (Fig. 3).

Locality: Gorbea (39°05′S, 72°38′W), Mehuín (39°24′S, 73°12′W) (Rudolph et al. 2010), Cahuicura (39°33′S, 73°03′W) (Rudolph 1995), Fundo Palos Altos (25 km at North of Valdivia 39°34′S, 73°13′W) (Bahamonde 1958, Manning & Hobbs 1977), Máfil (39°41′S, 73°00′W) (Rudolph 1996, Crandall et al. 2000), Catripulli (39°41′S, 73°05′W) (Bahamonde & López, 1963), Isla Teja (39°48′S, 73°15′W) (Crandall et al. 2000), Valdivia (39°50′S, 73°16′W) (Philippi 1882, Bahamonde 1958, Kilian 1959, Riek 1971, Manning & Hobbs 1977, Hobbs 1989), Chaihuín (39°57′S, 73°35′W) (Rudolph et al. 2010), Reumén (39°59′S, 72°50′W) (Rudolph & Zapata 1986, Rudolph 1990, 1995, 1997, Rudolph et al. 1991), Cumulelfu (40°05′S, 73°05′W), Pichirropulli (40°08′S, 72°54′W), Cofalmo (40°20′S, 73°24′W) Cofalmo (40°20′S, 73°24′W) (Rudolph et al. 2010), Fundo Bellavista (40°22′S, 73°13′W) (Bahamonde & López 1963, Manning & Hobbs 1977), Punotro (40°33′S, 73°33′W), Curaco (40°34′S, 73°12′W), Bahía Mansa (40°35′S, 73°44′W), Rucapihuel (40°35′S, 73°34′W), Maicolpué (40°36′S, 73°44′W) (Rudolph 1995), Tril–Tril (40°36′S, 73°45′W), Liucura (40°38′S, 73°31′W), Lumaco (40°38′S, 73°19′W), Cuinco (40°39′S, 73°27′W), Huilma (40°40′S, 73°20′W), Monte Verde (40°43′S, 73°24′W), Tres Esteros (40°45′S, 73°17′W), Millantúe (40°47′S, 73°27′W), Hueyusca (40°56′S, 73°33′W), San Pedro Bay (40°58′S, 73°47′W) (Rudolph et al. 2010), Río Chaquihua (41°26′S, 73°06′W) (Bahamonde 1958).

Virilastacus araucanius (Faxon, 1914) (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4

Distribution maps of the known groundwater Crustacea species of Chile: species of Virilastacus. 1) Virilastacus araucanius. 2) Virilastacus rucapihuelensis. 3) Virilastacus retamali. 4) Virilastacus jarai.

Fig. 4

Distribution maps of the known groundwater Crustacea species of Chile: species of Virilastacus. 1) Virilastacus araucanius. 2) Virilastacus rucapihuelensis. 3) Virilastacus retamali. 4) Virilastacus jarai.

Locality: Cosmito (36°46′S, 73°01′W) (Martínez et al. 1994, Bahamonde et al. 1998), Hualqui (36°56′S, 72°55′W) ) (Rudolph & Rivas 1988, Bahamonde et al. 1998), Queule (39°19′S, 73°12′W), Máfil (39°44′S, 72°54′W) (Rudolph et al. 2010), Isla Teja (39°48′S, 73°15′W) (Jara 1983, Hobbs 1991, Bahamonde et al. 1998, Crandall et al. 2000), Valdivia (39°50′S, 73°16′W) (Holthuis 1952, Hobbs 1989), Corral (39°53′S, 73°25′W) (Faxon 1914, Bahamonde & López 1963, Riek 1971, Manning & Hobbs 1977, Hobbs 1989, Valenzuela 2011), Chaihuín (39°57′S, 73°35′W) (Rudolph et al. 2010), Maicolpué (40°36′S, 73°44′W) (Bahamonde et al. 1998).

Virilastacus rucapihuelensis Rudolph & Crandall, 2005 (Fig. 4).

Locality: Carrico (40°34′S, 73°32′W), Coiguería (40°35′S, 73°32′W), Rucapihuel (40°35′S, 73°34′W), Contaco (40°36′S, 73°31′W), Loma de la Piedra (40°40′S, 73°44′W) (Rudolph & Crandall 2005, Grosso & Peralta 2009).

Virilastacus retamali Rudolph & Crandall, 2007 (Fig. 4).

Locality: Rucapihuel (40°35′S, 73°34′W), Estaquilla (41°25′S, 73°46′W) (Rudolph & Crandall 2007).

Virilastacus jarai Rudolph & Crandall, 2012 (Fig. 4).

Locality: Los Angeles (37°26′S, 72°18′W) (Rudolph & Crandall 2012).

Discussion

Limited information is available about the distribution of Chilean continental groundwater crustaceans. Following the same pattern observed for the diversity of inland superficial water crustaceans, most of the information about the distribution of groundwater crustaceans is from the northern, the central northern, and the extreme southern regions of Chile. This is a spatial bias resulting from the lack of sampling effort in intermediate geographic areas, in virtue of the distance of the sampling stations from the study centers (De los Ríos–Escalante, 2010, De los Ríos–Escalante et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the available data still indicates a North-South gradient of diversity, with the highest diversity of both groundwater and inland superficial water Crustacea species occurring between 33° S to 41° S (De los Ríos–Escalante et al. 2013). According to Camacho (2006) and Peralta (2014), this gap in the literature of studies pertaining to groundwater fauna is common also in other Central and South American countries. Due to its economic importance, the parastacid P. pugnax is responsible for most of the records in the literature. The lower record of other taxa of groundwater crustaceans also reflects the lack of Chilean specialists (Rudolph 2013).

Copepoda was the taxon with the most species described, with 27 species included in one family and five genera. The genus Attheyella is the most diverse, represented by 20 species distributed between central and southern central Chile (32–41° S), indicating the importance of copepods in groundwater assemblages (Galassi et al. 2009), and the lack of faunistic groundwater studies in continental Chilean territory (De los Ríos–Escalante, 2010, De los Ríos–Escalante et al. 2013).

Amphipoda is represented by six families, each family comprising one genus and one species. The superorder Syncarida has six genera and seven species distributed in three families. Within Syncarida, the genus Bathynella has two species described for the northern and the central Patagonia (39–45° S). Decapoda occur as a single family with two genera and six species distributed between 32–41° S.

Some of the taxa addressed here have broad geographical distributions and variable habitat preferences. Some groups show worldwide distribution. For example, the family Ingolfiellidae has representatives in the deep-sea and in the freshwater interstititial habitats. In northern Chile (Antofagasta), Ingolfiella manni inhabits both brackish and limnic interstitial water. In addition, ingolfiellids are found both in South America (Chile and Argentina) and in sub-equatorial Africa, the Canary Islands, southern Europe, and the Caribe (Väinölä et al. 2008). Canthocamptidae, Bathynellacea, and Bogidiellidae are distributed worldwide, but not occurring at polar latitudes (Schminke 1980, 1986, 2011, Reid 1994, Koeneman & Kolsinger 1999, Camacho 2006, Väinölä et al. 2008). Some taxa are restricted to Australia, New Zealand, and South America such as the Stygocarididae, Falklandellidae, and Parastacidae (Camacho 2006, Camacho et al. 2012, Pérez–Schultheiss 2013a, Rudolph 2013, Peralta 2014).

The six Chilean groundwater parastacid species can be found only from the Chilean intermediate depression to the coastal border except for P. pugnax, with populations occurring in the pre–Andean Mountains. The latitudinal range of these parastacids is between 33–41° S (Rudolph 2013) and the largest population of parastacids occur between the region of Bíobío and Los Lagos (36° S–41° S) (Rudolph 2010). This is consistent with the data for inland water crustacean taxa, revealing a region of high density as described by Jara et al. (2006), confirming the need to assign maximum priority conservation status to this geographical zone.

In the case of Syncarida, although reports are limited, priority areas of endemism for the conservation include: Quebrada de Córdoba, Chile Central (viz. Stygocaris gomezmillasi; Parvulobathynella riegelorum; Chilibathynella clandestina); Río Futa, Valdivia (viz. Atopobathynella valdiviana; Bathynella grossei); and Río Simpson, Puerto Aysén (viz. Oncostygocaris patagonica; Bathynella grossei).

We suggest the need for additional studies in the future that will help to clarify the taxonomy and diversity of groundwater crustaceans, to confirm reports of described species, and understand biogeographical patterns, ecological needs, and the bioindicator values for particular crustaceans in groundwater habitats.

Acknowledgments

The present study was funded by the project MECESUP UCT 0804 and Tides Foundation Grant TRF 13 03011. We are grateful to M.I., the anonimous peers and to the journal editors for their valuable suggestions towards improving this manuscript.

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*

According to Camacho (2006), the taxonomic status of this genus needs a revision.

Author notes

Associate Editor: Chris Boyko