Studies were made on the identification, damage and chemical methods of control of rodent pests in irrigated and nonirrigated fields of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) at Ludhiana, India. Peanut fields were infested with Bandicota bengalensis, Tatera indica, Rattus meltada and Mus spp., except that B. bengalensis was absent in nonirrigated fields. These rodents reduced peanut yield by an average 3.86%, a loss of 190.18 rupees/ha ($15.12 US). Severe rodent damage was sporadic with a maximum of 18.97% reduction in peanut yield. Rodents inflicted more damage between 80 to 120 days after planting, i. e. during the pod fill stage of crop growth. A single treatment with poison bait at 80 to 90 days after planting with 2.4% zinc phosphide, 0.005% brodifacoum and 0.005% bromadiolone in cereal baits at the rate of 1 kg/ha resulted in 58.07%, 42.26% and 40.88% rodent control, respectively, in nonirrigated fields. In irrigated fields, 58.70% and 67.02% rodent control was achieved with zinc phosphide and brodifacoum baits respectively. Significantly higher rodent control was obtained with 2 treatments of either brodifacoum or bromadiolone than with a single treatment of any rodenticide. Wax blocks containing 0.005% brodifacoum were less effective than cereal baits containing the same rodenticide. Two applications at 10 day interval of either 0.005% brodifacoum or bromadiolone between 80–100 days after planting is suggested for rodent control in peanut fields.