Research was conducted in North Carolina and Virginia from 1997 through 1999 to compare runner and virginia market-type peanuts as influenced by cultivar selection, fertility practices, and pest management strategies. The runner market-type cultivar Georgia Green yielded and provided gross market value equivalent to the virginia market-type cultivar NC-V11 under a wide range of edaphic and environmental conditions. Calcium (as gypsum) applied at initial pegging increased the percentage of extra large kernels, the percentage of total sound mature kernels, and market value (c/kg) of the virginia market-type cultivar Gregory. The runner market-type cultivars Georgia Green and GK-7 were less responsive to calcium. Response of both market types was dependant upon environmental conditions. Pest management strategy affected pod yield, gross value, and economic return of peanut similarly for both virginia and runner market types. Results from these studies suggest that runner market-type peanut can provide pod yield, gross value, and economic returns similar to commonly grown virginia market-type peanut when grown in the Virginia-Carolina region. However, the peanut industry in the Virginia-Carolina region is designed for virginia market-type peanut used for the in-shell market, and popularity of growing runner market-type peanut in this region will most likely depend upon market pressures rather than agronomic potential.