Several “Performance Improvement Quarterly” (PIQ) submissions have been rejected because of how survey instruments were developed, analyzed, or validated. In this Editorial, I hope to provide a quick guide for what is and is not accepted with survey instruments. This guide will focus on the central issues we have experienced with submissions to PIQ. However, these guidelines will not be a complete guide for conducting research using surveys or validating instruments.

One of the main issues we have experienced with submissions to PIQ is that the constructs combined into a comprehensive survey are not supported by a theoretical foundation. I often ask, “Why are these constructs used and combined?” and “What theory puts these specific constructs together to justify a combined survey instrument?”. In several studies that we have reviewed, not only in PIQ but also in other peer-reviewed journals, constructs are measured without a theoretical foundation highlighting why these...

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