The sociocultural impacts of a major development project begin as soon as the project is announced in a community. Even when a project is never developed, the anticipated impacts of the project lead to real impacts of the proposal as individuals act to support or oppose the proposed project. Here I describe the sociocultural impacts experienced by members of two American Indian tribes due to their consideration of proposals to site hazardous waste incineration facilities on their lands. I also review the efficacy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for providing impact assessment information to tribes or agencies working with them and suggest some strategies for tribes considering similar industrial development projects.
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