This article presents the results of an ethnographic survey of land utilization in the Niobrara National Scenic River (NIOB) and Missouri National Recreational River (MNRR) districts completed for the National Park Service as part of their ongoing Ethnographic Program. It focuses particularly on the Ponca, Omaha, Yankton, and Santee Sioux tribes, each of whom have in the past and continue to maintain unique cultural ties to the riverways. The broad cultural landscape approach used in this study facilitates an exploration of connections between resources (both cultural and natural), significant places, archaeological sites, and landmarks within the districts. Here, I present a discussion of methods for conducting a cultural landscape survey through collaborative research between the National Park Service, university researchers, and Native American stakeholders in order to better understand diverse conceptions of the land and its resources.

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