C57Bl Cnb mice were exposed to single or fractionated d(50)+Be neutrons or137 Cs γ-ray exposure at 12 weeks of age and were followed for life-shortening and disease incidence. The data were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier procedure using as criteria cause of death and possible cause of death. Individual groups were compared by a modified Wilcoxon test according to Hoel and Walburg, and entire sets of different doses from one radiation schedule were evaluated by the procedure of Peto and by the Cox proportional hazard model. No significant difference was found in life-shortening of C57Bl mice between a single γ and neutron exposure. Gamma fractionation was clearly less effective in reducing survival time than a single exposure. On the contrary, fractionation of neutrons was slightly although not significantly more effective in reducing life span than a single exposure. Life-shortening appeared to be a linear function of dose in all groups studied. The data on causes of death show that malignant tumors, particularly leukemias including thymic lymphoma, and noncancerous late degenerative changes in lung were the principal cause of life-shortening after a high single γ exposure. Exposure delivered in 8 fractions 3 h apart was more effective in causing leukemias and all carcinomas and sarcomas than one delivered in 10 fractions 24 h apart or in a single session. Following a single neutron exposure, leukemias and all carcinomas and sarcomas appeared to increase somewhat more rapidly with dose than after γ irradiation. No significant difference in the incidence of leukemias and all carcinomas and sarcomas was noted between a single and a fractionated neutron exposure.

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