Oncogenic transformation was assayed after C3H 10T 1/2 cells were irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons; cells were exposed to 0.23-, 0.35-, 0.45-, 5.9-, and 13.7-MeV neutrons given singly or in five equal fractions over 8 h. At the biologically effective neutron energy of 0.45 MeV, enhancement of transformation was evident with some small fractionated doses (below 1 Gy). When transformation was examined as a function of neutron energy at 0.5 Gy, enhancement was seen for cells exposed to three of the five energies (0.35, 0.45, and 5.9 MeV). Enhancement was greatest for cells irradiated with 5.9-MeV neutrons. Of the neutron energies examined, 5.9-MeV neutrons had the lowest dose-averaged lineal energy and linear energy transfer. This suggests that enhancement of transformation by fractionated low doses of neutrons may be radiation-quality dependent.

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