Changes in the numbers of peripheral lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations were observed in cynomolgus monkeys after fractionated or acute 60Co irradiation at the same total doses. Immediately after irradiation, the yield of dicentrics decreased when the dose was fractionated but remained constant for 20 to 80 days, depending on the dose, when irradiation was acute. Lymphopenia was greater than expected when the dose was fractionated. The kinetics of the loss of chromosome aberrations and the changes in peripheral lymphocyte count occurring in monkeys after acute irradiation were compared to those observed in accidentally irradiated men.

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