The radiation environment in low-Earth orbit is a complex mixture of galactic cosmic radiation, particles of trapped belts and secondary particles generated in both the spacecraft and Earth's atmosphere. Infrequently, solar energetic particles are injected into the Earth's magnetosphere and can penetrate into low-Earth orbiting spacecraft. In this paper, the sources of charged-particle radiation that contribute significantly to radiation exposure on manned spacecraft are reviewed briefly, and estimates of expected dose rate for the upcoming International Space Station that are based on measurements made on the Russian Mir orbital station are provided.

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