Inano, H., Onoda, M., Suzuki, K., Kobayashi, H. and Wakabayashi, K. Inhibitory Effects of WR-2721 and Cysteamine on Tumor Initiation in Mammary Glands of Pregnant Rats by Radiation.
We evaluated the effect of WR-2721 [S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid] and cysteamine (2-mercaptoethylamine) on the development of radiation-induced mammary tumors in rats. Pregnant rats were treated with WR-2721 or cysteamine 30 min prior to whole-body irradiation with γ rays from a 60Co source at a dose of 1.5 or 2.6 Gy. Additional pregnant rats were given saline and then exposed to γ rays at a dose of 0, 1.5 or 2.6 Gy as a control. All rats were implanted with pellets of diethylstilbestrol, a tumor promoter, 1 month after termination of nursing and were observed for 1 year to detect palpable mammary tumors. No mammary tumors developed in the saline-injected nonirradiated rats. However, when rats were irradiated with 1.5 or 2.6 Gy after saline treatment, the incidence of mammary tumors was high (71.4 and 92.3%, respectively). Administration of WR-2721 or cysteamine prior to irradiation with 1.5 Gy significantly decreased the tumor incidence (23.8 and 20.8%, respectively). Tumor prevention by either agent was less effective at the higher dose. The appearance of the first mammary tumor occurred later in rats treated with WR-2721 or cysteamine than in the control rats. An increasing rate of adenocarcinoma in the control group was observed with increasing dose from 1.5 Gy up to 2.6 Gy. However, the development of adenocarcinoma did not increase after pretreatment with WR-2721 or cysteamine in rats irradiated with 2.6 Gy. Many of the mammary tumors that developed in the control rats were of the ER+PgR+ type. Administration of WR-2721 produced no tumors of the ER+PgR+ type. Cysteamine treatment increased the development of ER-negative tumors. The serum concentration of progesterone was significantly higher in rats treated with WR-2721 or cysteamine than in the control rats. On the other hand, the estradiol-17β concentration was reduced by treatment with WR-2721, but not significantly compared to the control. WR-2721 and cysteamine had no effect on the prolactin concentration of the irradiated rats. The results suggest that administration of WR-2721 or cysteamine prior to the irradiation has a potent preventive effect on the initiation phase during mammary tumorigenesis.