Fenton, B.M., Lord, E.M. and Paoni, S.F. Enhancement of Tumor Perfusion and Oxygenation by Carbogen and Nicotinamide during Single- and Multifraction Irradiation.
Numerous experimental and clinical studies have been completed regarding the effects of carbogen and nicotinamide on tumor oxygenation and radiosensitivity. The current study incorporates three physiological measurement techniques to further define spatial variations in oxygen availability and development of hypoxia after single- and multifraction irradiation in KHT murine fibrosarcomas. Distances to anatomical and perfused blood vessels were measured using immunohistochemical and fluorescent staining, intravascular oxygen levels were determined cryospectrophotometrically, and tumor hypoxia was quantified using uptake of EF5, a marker of hypoxia. Carbogen, nicotinamide, and the combination of both all increased intravascular oxygen availability compared to controls. While nicotinamide had no effect on the number of perfused blood vessels in nonirradiated tumors, carbogen produced a substantial closing of vessels. After a single dose of 4 Gy, only the combination of nicotinamide and carbogen produced significant improvements in oxygen availability, while numbers of perfused vessels were significantly increased for nicotinamide, unchanged for the combination of nicotinamide and carbogen, and significantly decreased for carbogen. After 4 × 4-Gy fractions, oxygen availability was increased substantially with the combination of nicotinamide and carbogen, somewhat with carbogen, and not at all with nicotinamide. Tumor oxygenation changes were estimated by EF5/Cy3 intensity distributions, which demonstrated that manipulative agents could produce disparate effects on tumor hypoxia when combined with either single- or multifraction irradiation.