Panov, V., Salomon, Y., Kabalka, G. W. and Bendel, P. Uptake and Washout of Borocaptate Sodium and Borono-phenylalanine in Cultured Melanoma Cells: A Multi-nuclear NMR Study.
The cellular uptake and washout of the two principal boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents, borocaptate sodium (BSH) and borono-phenylalanine (BPA), were monitored on-line, noninvasively, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The uptake and washout of inorganic borate (Bi) was also followed for comparison. M2R mouse melanoma cells grown on polystyrene microspheres were perfused inside the NMR sample tube. 11B NMR was used to detect the presence of Bi, BSH and BPA, and 19F NMR was applied to detect fluorinated BPA (19F-BPA). The results revealed chemical modifications of BSH due to spontaneous formation of the borocaptate dimer, BSSB, in the culture medium. BPA readily formed a complex with glucose contained in the culture medium but was also converted in the cells to a yet unidentified compound in a reaction that probably involves the hydrolysis of BPA and the release of Bi. The cellular accumulation ratio for BPA was significantly higher than 1 and was also significantly higher than that for BSH. On the other hand, the cellular retention time observed for BSH was much longer than for BPA, indicating a strong trapping of BSH in cells.