Coleman, M. A., Yin, E., Peterson, L. E., Nelson, D., Sorensen, K., Tucker, J. D. and Wyrobek, A. J. Low-Dose Irradiation Alters the Transcript Profiles of Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Including Genes Associated with Cytogenetic Radioadaptive Response. Radiat. Res. 164, 369–382 (2005).

Low-dose ionizing radiation alters the gene expression profiles of mammalian cells, yet there is little understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms responsible for these changes or of their consequences for genomic stability. We investigated the cytogenetic adaptive response of human lymphoblastoid cell lines exposed to 5 cGy (priming dose) followed by 2 Gy (challenge dose) compared to cells that received a single 2-Gy dose to (a) determine how the priming dose influences subsequent gene transcript expression in reproducibly adapting and non-adapting cell lines, and (b) identify gene transcripts that are associated with reductions in the magnitude of chromosomal damage after the challenge dose. The transcript profiles were evaluated using oligonucleotide arrays and RNA obtained 4 h after the challenge dose. A set of 145 genes (false discovery rate = 5%) with transcripts that were affected by the 5-cGy priming dose fell into two categories: (a) a set of common genes that were similarly modulated by the 5-cGy priming dose irrespective of whether the cells subsequently adapted or not and (b) genes with differential transcription in accordance with the cell lines that showed either adaptive or non-adaptive outcomes. The common priming-dose response genes showed up-regulation for protein synthesis genes and down-regulation of metabolic and signal transduction genes (>10-fold differences). The genes associated with subsequent adaptive and non-adaptive outcomes involved DNA repair, stress response, cell cycle control and apoptosis. Our findings support the importance of TP53-related functions in the control of the low-dose cytogenetic radioadaptive response and suggest that certain low-dose-induced alterations in cellular functions are predictive for the risk of subsequent genomic damage.

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