Desai, N., Davis, E., O'Neill, P., Durante, M., Cucinotta, F. A. and Wu, H. Immunofluorescence Detection of Clustered γ-H2AX Foci Induced by HZE-Particle Radiation. Radiat. Res. 164, 518–522 (2005).

We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of foci of the phosphorylated form of the histone protein H2AX (γ-H2AX), which is known to be activated by double-strand breaks after irradiation of human fibroblast cells with high-energy silicon (54 keV/μm) and iron (176 keV/μm) ions. Here we present data obtained with the ion path parallel to a monolayer of human fibroblast cells that leads to γ-H2AX aggregates in the shape of streaks stretching over several micrometers in an x/y plane, thus enabling the analysis of the fluorescence distributions along the ion trajectories. Qualitative analyses of these distributions provide insights into DNA damage processing kinetics for high charge and energy (HZE) ions, including evidence of increased clustering of DNA damage and slower processing with increasing LET.

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