Shao, C., Lyng, F. M., Folkard, M. and Prise, K. M. Calcium Fluxes Modulate the Radiation-Induced Bystander Responses in Targeted Glioma and Fibroblast Cells. Radiat. Res. 166, 479–487 (2006).
Bystander responses have been reported to be a major determinant of the response of cells to radiation exposure at low doses, including those of relevance to therapy. This study investigated the role of changes in calcium levels in bystander responses leading to chromosomal damage in nonirradiated T98G glioma cells and AG01522 fibroblasts that had been either exposed to conditioned medium from irradiated cells or co-cultured with a population where a fraction of cells were individually targeted through the nucleus or cytoplasm with a precise number of microbeam helium-3 particles. After the recipient cells were treated with conditioned medium from T98G or AG01522 cells that had been irradiated through either nucleus or cytoplasm, rapid calcium fluxes were monitored in the nonirradiated recipient cells. Their characteristics were dependent on the source of the conditioned medium but had no dependence on radiation dose. When recipient cells were co-cultured with an irradiated population of either T98G or AG01522 cells, micronuclei were induced in the nonirradiated cells, but this response was eliminated by treating the cells with calcicludine (CaC), a potent blocker of Ca2+ channels. Moreover, both the calcium fluxes and the bystander effect were inhibited when the irradiated T98G cells were treated with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and when the irradiated AG01522 cells were treated with DMSO, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which indicates that NO and ROS were involved in the bystander responses generated from irradiated T98G and AG01522 cells, respectively. Our findings indicate that calcium signaling may be an early response in radiation-induced bystander effects leading to chromosome damage.