We appreciate Dr. Ulsh's interest in our paper and understand his concerns about uncertainties in the risk estimates. While we are well aware of the many uncertainties associated with both the nature of the exposures received by Techa River residents and the large uncertainties in individual dose estimates, we think that this study does provide “strong evidence of long-term carcinogenic effects of protracted low-dose radiation exposures”. We welcome the opportunity to address the issues raised in Dr. Ulsh's letter.

There is no doubt that a variety of chemicals were released into the Techa River as a result of Mayak operations. A 1951 report from the Mayak archives describes the nature of the releases into the river (1) during the early years of Mayak operations. According to this report, the releases into the Techa River were primarily solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium acetate with...

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