Hofman-Hüther, H., Peuckert, H., Ritter, S. and Virsik-Köpp, P. Chromosomal Instability and Delayed Apoptosis in Long-Term T-Lymphocyte Cultures Irradiated with Carbon Ions and X Rays. Radiat. Res. 166, 858–869 (2006).

In this study, we examined genomic instability induced by 250 kV X rays and 100 MeV/nucleon carbon ions in long-term lymphocyte cultures from two healthy donors. Two biological end points, delayed apoptosis and chromosomal instability, were studied in descendants of cells irradiated with three different doses of the particular radiation up to 22 population doublings. The delayed apoptosis showed no clear dependence on radiation dose, culture time or radiation quality. A persistent significant increase in the rate of apoptosis up to 36 days after X irradiation was observed for a dose of 4 Gy in donor 1 only. For both donors and radiations, de novo aberration yields were significantly increased in comparison to control values up to day 36. For both radiations, chromosome-type aberrations were seen more frequently than chromatid-type aberrations in both donors up to 22 days postirradiation. In both donors, carbon ions were more effective than X rays with respect to the induction of chromosome instability. A dose of 0.25 Gy of carbon ions corresponding to 1.4 ion traversals per cell nucleus was effective in the induction of instability in our cell system.

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