Miller, J. H., Jin, S., Morgan, W. F., Yang, A., Wan, Y., Aypar, U., Peters, J. S. and Springer D. L. Profiling Mitochondrial Proteins in Radiation-Induced Genome-Unstable Cell Lines with Persistent Oxidative Stress by Mass Spectrometry. Radiat. Res. 169, 700–706 (2008).
Previous work by Morgan and coworkers on radiation-induced genome instability in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines showed that unstable LS-12 cells had persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were likely due to dysfunctional mitochondria. To further investigate the correlation between radiation-induced genome instability and dysfunctional mitochondria, we performed quantitative high-throughput mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally unstable CHO cell lines and their stable unirradiated GM10115 parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. The LS-12 cell line, which exhibited the highest level of ROS among the three unstable cell lines, was characterized by eight significantly down-regulated mitochondrial proteins, all associated with the TCA (tricarboxylic acid). Elevated levels of ROS relative to the unirradiated parental control were also statistically significant for the CS-9 cell line. The protein profile of CS-9 revealed five significantly up-regulated mitochondrial proteins, three of which are involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Elevation of ROS in the unstable 115 cell line was nearly as large as that seen in CS-9 cells but was not statistically significant. The mitochondrial protein profile of 115 cells showed significant down-regulation of acetyl-CoA-acetyltransferase, which was also down-regulated in LS-12, and two other proteins with abundances that were significantly different from control levels but were not directly related to either the TCA or oxidative phosphorylation. These results provide further evidence that elevated ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with radiation-induced genome instability; however, additional work is required to establish a firm mechanistic relationship between these end points.