Sato, T., Yasuda, H., Niita, K., Endo, A. and Sihver, L. Development of PARMA: PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere. Radiat. Res. 170, 244–259 (2008).

Estimation of cosmic-ray spectra in the atmosphere has been essential for the evaluation of aviation doses. We therefore calculated these spectra by performing Monte Carlo simulation of cosmic-ray propagation in the atmosphere using the PHITS code. The accuracy of the simulation was well verified by experimental data taken under various conditions, even near sea level. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the simulation results, we proposed an analytical model for estimating the cosmic-ray spectra of neutrons, protons, helium ions, muons, electrons, positrons and photons applicable to any location in the atmosphere at altitudes below 20 km. Our model, named PARMA, enables us to calculate the cosmic radiation doses rapidly with a precision equivalent to that of the Monte Carlo simulation, which requires much more computational time. With these properties, PARMA is capable of improving the accuracy and efficiency of the cosmic-ray exposure dose estimations not only for aircrews but also for the public on the ground.

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