Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been suggested to be a valuable method for characterizing the physiological microenvironment of tumors and thus a promising method for individualizing cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that valid parametric images of the tumor microenvironment can be obtained by pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI series. Cells of four human melanoma xenograft lines (A-07, D-12, R-18 and T-22) were used as preclinical models of human cancer. DCE-MRI was performed at 1.5 T at a spatial resolution of 0.23 × 0.47 × 2.0 mm3 and a time resolution of 14 s. Gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was used as contrast agent. The DCE-MRI data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis by using a pharmacokinetic model recommended for analysis of clinical DCE-MRI series. Parametric DCE-MR images were compared with tumor blood perfusion measured by the 86Rb uptake method, and fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space assessed by analysis of histological preparations. Parametric images reflecting tumor blood perfusion and fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space were obtained. The numerical values of the DCE-MRI-derived parameters were not significantly different from the absolute values of tumor blood perfusion or fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space in any of the tumor lines. This study shows that DCE-MRI can provide valid quantitative parametric images of the tumor microenvironment in preclinical cancer models and thus supports the suggestion that DCE-MRI may be developed to be a clinically useful method for individualization of microenvironment-based cancer treatment, a possibility that merits increased clinical interest.