X rays of 26–30 kVp are routinely used for mammography screening. For radioprotection purposes, a quality factor (Q) of 1 is assumed for all photon energies, but it is thought that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increases as the photon energy decreases. The analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is one of the most widely used methods to study the interaction between radiation and DNA. Here we present a FISH study on metaphases from peripheral blood samples irradiated with three different X-ray energies (30, 80 and 120 kVp). The study comprises two FISH approaches: one using pantelomeric and pancentromeric probes to evaluate the induction of incomplete chromosome aberrations and the other using mFISH to evaluate the induction of complex chromosome aberrations. The results indicate that exposure to 30 kVp X rays resulted in a modest increase in the induction of incomplete elements and complex aberrations compared to 80 and 120 kVp X rays.