Determination and understanding of out-of-field neutron and photon doses in accelerator-based radiotherapy is an important issue since linear accelerators operating at high energies (>10 MV) produce secondary radiations that irradiate parts of the patient's anatomy distal to the target region, potentially resulting in detrimental health effects. This paper provides a compilation of data (technical and clinical) reported in the literature on the measurement and Monte Carlo simulations of peripheral neutron and photon doses produced from high-energy medical linear accelerators and the reported risk and/or incidence of second primary cancer of tissues distal to the target volume. Information in the tables facilitates easier identification of (1) the various methods and measurement techniques used to determine the out-of-field neutron and photon radiations, (2) reported linac-dependent out-of-field doses, and (3) the risk/incidence of second cancers after radiotherapy due to classic and modern treatment methods. Regardless of the measurement technique and type of accelerator, the neutron dose equivalent per unit photon dose ranges from as low as 0.1 mSv/Gy to as high as 20.4 mSv/Gy. This radiation dose potentially contributes to the induction of second primary cancer in normal tissues outside the treated area.
Out-of-Field Neutron and Leakage Photon Exposures and the Associated Risk of Second Cancers in High-Energy Photon Radiotherapy: Current Status
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R. Takam, E. Bezak, L. G. Marcu, E. Yeoh; Out-of-Field Neutron and Leakage Photon Exposures and the Associated Risk of Second Cancers in High-Energy Photon Radiotherapy: Current Status. Radiat Res 1 October 2011; 176 (4): 508–520. doi: https://doi.org/10.1667/RR2606.1
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