Hanahan and Weinberg recently updated their conceptual framework of the “Hallmarks of Cancer”. The original article, published in 2000, is among the most highly cited reviews in the field of oncology. The goal of this review is to highlight important discoveries in radiation biology that pertain to the Hallmarks. We identified early studies that exemplified how ionizing radiation affects the hallmarks or how radiation was used experimentally to advance the understanding of key hallmarks. A literature search was performed to obtain relevant primary research, and topics were assigned to a particular hallmark to allow an organized, chronological account of the radiobiological advancements. The hallmarks are reviewed in an order that flows from cellular to microenvironmental effects.

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