Mitigation of total-body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6 mice by two drugs, which target apoptosis and necroptosis respectively, increases survival compared to one drug alone. Here we investigated whether the biomarker (signature)directed addition of a third anti-ferroptosis drug further mitigated TBI effects. C57BL/6NTac female mice (30–33 g) received 9.25 Gy TBI, and 24 h or later received JP4-039 (20 mg/kg), necrostatin-1 (1.65 mg/kg) and/or lipoxygenase-15 inhibitor (baicalein) (50 mg/kg) in single-, dual- or three-drug regimens. Some animals were sacrificed at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 7 postirradiation, while the majority in each group were maintained beyond 30 days. For those mice sacrificed at the early time points, femur bone marrow, intestine (ileum), lung and blood plasma were collected and analyzed for radiation-induced and mitigator-modified levels of 33 pro-inflammatory and stress response proteins. Each single mitigator administered [JP4-039 (24 h), necrostatin-1 (48 h) or baicalein (24 h)] improved survival at day 30 after TBI to 25% (P = 0.0432, 0.2816 or 0.1120, respectively) compared to 5% survival of 9.25 Gy TBI controls. Mice were administered the drug individually based on weight (mg/kg). Drug vehicles comprised 30% cyclodextrin for JP4-039 and baicalein, and 10% Cremphor-EL/10% ethanol/80% water for necrostatin-1; thus, dual-vehicle controls were also tested. The dual-drug combinations further enhanced survival: necrostatin-1 (delayed to 72 h) with baicalein 40% (P = 0.0359); JP4-039 with necrostatin-1 50% (P = 0.0062); and JP4-039 with baicalein 60% (P = 0.0064). The three-drug regimen, timed to signature directed evidence of onset after TBI of each death pathway in marrow and intestine, further increased the 30-day survival to 75% (P = 0.0002), and there was optimal normalization to preirradiation levels of inflammatory cytokine and stress response protein levels in plasma, intestine and marrow. In contrast, lung protein levels were minimally altered by 9.25 Gy TBI or mitigators over 7 days. Significantly, elevated intestinal proteins at day 7 after TBI were reduced by necrostatin-1-containing regimens; however, normalization of plasma protein levels at day 7 required the addition of JP4-039 and baicalein. These findings indicate that mitigator targeting to three distinct cell death pathways increases survival after TBI.

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