Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with high recurrence and metastasis rates, and more than half of the patients diagnosed with NSCLC receive local radiotherapy. However, the intrinsic radio-resistance of cancer cells is a major barrier to effective radiotherapy for NSCLC. CRYBG3 is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that was originally identified to be upregulated in NSCLC and enhanced metastasis of NSCLC cells by interacting with eEF1A1 to promote murine double minute 2 (MDM2) expression. The aims of this study were to reveal the contribution of CRYBG3 to the radioresistance of NSCLC and determine whether that is associated with MDM2-p53 pathway. Therefore, CRYBG3 was stably downregulated in A549 (wild-type p53) and H1299 (deficient p53) cells by infecting short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral particles. The results showed that downregulation of CRYBG3 increased DNA damage, enhanced apoptosis and pro-apoptotic protein expression in A549 or p53-overexpressed H1299 cells but not in H1299 or p53-silenced A549 cells after X-ray irradiation. However, the contribution of CRYBG3 to radioresistance was abolished by eEF1A1 or MDM2 knockdown in A549 cells. Thus, we concluded that downregulation of CRYBG3 enhanced radiosensitivity by reducing MDM2 expression then leading to decreased MDM2-mediated degradation of p53 in wild-type p53 expressing NSCLC cells. These findings suggested that CRYBG3 can be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of certain lung cancer subtypes.

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