Two effects of pupal irradiation were studied in detail in the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum. Developmental wing abnormalities were found to be temperature-sensitive, reaching a minimum at 28°C. Also, in terms of wing abnormalities, x-ray sensitivity according to age is variable, having two maxima at 10 and 25 hours postpupation and decreasing to control levels at 39 hours postpupation. The length of the pupal stage is protracted with x-irradiation or with decreased temperature; the eclosion delay due to the irradiation per se is independent of the temperature following irradiation. An activation energy of 25,300 cal/mole was obtained for the pupal period.

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