Review of the data accumulated at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) during the past 20 years revealed 156 cases of aplastic anemia. Forty of these cases were found among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Analysis of the incidence rate of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors was possible, however, on only 11 cases which developed among 79,184 survivors who are in the fixed population under surveillance by ABCC for delayed effects of A-bomb radiation. The period under consideration is from Oct. 1950 to July 1967. The relative risk of aplastic anemia in survivors who received 1 rad or more was 1.8, as compared with those who received less than 1 rad. The number of cases is small and the increase in risk was not statistically significant. Aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors did not show any particular clinical characteristic. The risk of aplastic anemia among patients treated with radiation and workers exposed to occupational radiation was examined in relation to the results of the present study.

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