Two sources of secondary electrons that are concomitant with most ionization phenomena and produce electrons in addition to the primary ionization event are: (1) electron shake-off and (2) vacancy cascades. Electron shake-off is the promotion of an electron into the continuum because of a sudden change in the central potential of an atom, caused, for example, by the loss of a shielding electron. A vacancy cascade is a series of Auger processes that ensue from the creation of a vacancy in the inner shell of an atom. A review of the nature of these sources of ionization and the energy and intensity distribution of secondary electrons that result from them is given. Suggestions are given for future experimental and theoretical developments.

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