In mice given intraperitoneally 0.034 μCi of <tex-math>${}^{226}{\rm Ra}/{\rm g}$</tex-math> body weight the peripheral blood counts, marrow cellularity in femora and lumbar vertebrae, and the colony counts and59 Fe uptake in spleens of heavily irradiated hosts after grafting either femoral or vertebral myeloid cells were determined. In mice treated with 0.030 μCi of <tex-math>${}^{226}{\rm Ra}/{\rm g}$</tex-math> the activity per 10 mg of wet bone tissue was computed and the data obtained in femoral ends and diaphyses and in lumbar vertebrae were correlated to the hematological findings. The effect of internally retained226 Ra is manifested by serious changes in femoral and vertebral hemopoiesis and in peripheral blood counts. The vertebral marrow is more seriously damaged as observed in the colony counts and59 Fe uptake in recipient spleens. This unequal response of femoral and vertebral marrow is discussed in relation to the226 Ra activity retained and the area of endosteal surfaces.

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