The observation of an enhanced therapeutic index for FLASH radiotherapy in mice has created interest in practical laboratory-based FLASH irradiators. To date, systems capable of 3D conformal FLASH irradiation in mice have been lacking. We are developing such a system, incorporating a high-current linear accelerator to produce a collimated X-ray beam in a stationary beamline design, rotating the mouse about a longitudinal axis to achieve conformal irradiation from multiple beam directions. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the reproducibility of mouse anatomy under rotation at speeds compatible with conformal FLASH delivery. Three short-hair mice and two hairless mice were immobilized under anesthesia in body weight-specific contoured plastic molds, and subjected to three rotational (up to 3 revolutions/s) and two non-rotational movement interventions. MicroCT images were acquired before and after each intervention. The displacements of 11 anatomic landmarks were measured on the image pairs. The displacement of the anatomical landmarks with any of the interventions was 0.5 mm or less for 92.4% of measurements, with a single measurement out of 275 (11 landmarks × 5 interventions × 5 mice) reaching 1 mm. There was no significant difference in the displacements associated with rotation compared to those associated with moving the immobilized mouse in and out of a scanner or with leaving the mouse in place for 5 min with no motion. There were no significant differences in displacements between mice with or without hair, although the analysis is limited by small numbers, or between different anatomic landmarks. These results show that anatomic reproducibility under rotation speed corresponding to FLASH irradiation times appears to be compatible with conformal/stereotactic irradiation in mice.

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