Fujiwara, S., Suyama, A., Cologne, J. B., Akahoshi, M., Yamada, Y., Suzuki, G., Koyama, K., Takahashi, N., Kasagi, F., Grant, E. J., Lagarde, F., Hsu, W. L., Furukawa, K., Ohishi, W., Tatsukawa, Y. , Neriishi, K., Takahashi, I., Ashizawa, K., Hida, A., Imaizumi, M., Nagano, J., Cullings, H. M., Katayama, H., Ross, N. P., Kodama, K. and Shore, R. E. Prevalence of Adult-Onset Multifactorial Disease among Offspring of Atomic Bomb Survivors. Radiat. Res. 170, 451–457 (2008). The first study to examine whether parental radiation exposure leads to increased heritable risk of common adult-onset multifactorial diseases (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) was conducted among 11,951 participants in the clinical examination program out of a potential of 24,673 mail survey subjects who were offspring of survivors born from May 1946 through December 1984. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated no evidence of an association between the prevalence of multifactorial diseases in the offspring and parental radiation exposure, after adjusting for age, city, gender and various risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for a paternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–1.01, P = 0.08], and that for a maternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.98 (95% CI 0.86–1.10, P = 0.71). There was no apparent effect of parental age at exposure or of elapsed time between parental exposure and birth, but male offspring had a low odds ratio (OR = 0.76 at 1 Gy) for paternal exposure, but cautious interpretation is needed for this finding. The clinical assessment of nearly 12,000 offspring of A-bomb survivors who have reached a median age of about 50 years provided no evidence for an increased prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in relation to parental radiation exposure.