A follow-up study of A-bomb survivors registered in Nagasaki was conducted from 1970 to 1984 by the Scientific Data Center of A-Bomb Disaster at Nagasaki University, which has collected medical and administrative data on A-bomb survivors with the help of Nagasaki City Hall and other organizations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the following two points. (1) Has the health screening program for A-bomb survivors reduced the mortality rate? (2) If so, how much has it reduced it, and what would the life-shortening effect of radiation be without the health screening program? The results revealed that the effect of radiation on mortality would be underestimated if the health screening factor were ignored. The estimated effect of radiation dose was compared with that estimated by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF).