Protection against radiation-induced DNA strand breaks is an important aspect in the design and development of a radioprotector. In this study, the radioprotective efficacy of sesamol, a natural antioxidant, was investigated in aqueous solution of plasmid DNA (pBR322) and compared with that of melatonin, a known antioxidant-based radioprotector. Thermal denaturation studies on irradiated calf thymus DNA were also carried out with sesamol and melatonin. Sesamol demonstrated greater radioprotective efficacy in both plasmid DNA and calf thymus DNA. To assess the radical scavenging capacity of sesamol and melatonin, 2-deoxyribose degradation, DPPH and ABTS assays were performed. Sesamol exhibited more scavenging capacity compared to melatonin. In vitro studies with V79 cells showed that sesamol is 20 times more potent than melatonin. It is proposed that the greater radioprotective efficacy of sesamol could be due to its greater capacity for scavenging of free radicals compared to melatonin. The results will be helpful in understanding the mechanisms and development of sesamol as a radioprotector.
Mishra, K., Bhardwaj, R. and Chaudhury, N. K. Netropsin, a Minor Groove Binding Ligand: A Potential Radioprotective Agent. Minimizing radiation-induced damages in DNA is an important aspect in the development of chemical radioprotectors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible radioprotective ability of the DNA minor groove binding ligand netropsin in an aqueous solution of plasmid DNA (pBR322) and to compare its efficacy with that of Hoechst 33258, a known radioprotector. The radiochemical parameters D 0 , G SSB and DMF were calculated in pBR322 DNA. Based on a comparison of the DMFs of netropsin and Hoechst 33258, netropsin appeared to be the better radioprotector. The ligand binding site accessibility of the restriction enzyme Eco RI at the ligand-pBR322 complex was assessed using a restriction-digestion assay in irradiated solutions. A distinct ligand-bound site protection in netropsin-DNA was observed in irradiated solutions. However, no site protection was observed in the presence of Hoechst 33258. The possible role of ligand-induced structural stabilization in irradiated aqueous solutions was also investigated using netropsin-calf thymus DNA melting temperature measurements. The greater radioprotective ability of netropsin in solutions of DNA was suggested to be due to its higher binding affinity and its ability to provide higher structural stabilization. Eco RI digestion revealed that hydroxyl radical (OH • ) generated by ionizing radiation is not able to radiolyse the netropsin-DNA complex. These results will help in developing better radioprotectors.