Talon-grappling and cartwheeling are mid-flight physical interactions between raptors, characterized by two birds locked together by their talons and spinning as they fall (Farquhar et al. 1994). These flights are considered to be primarily aggressive interactions between territorial birds (Simmons and Mendelsohn 1993, Raimilla et al. 2015). However, cartwheeling is not always related to aggression and is sometimes associated with food transfers (Kitowski 2001), courtship (Simmons and Mendelsohn 1993), or as a prelude to copulation (Borello and Borello 2004, Murn et al. 2009).

In-flight interactions between Hooded Vultures (Necrosyrtes monachus) have been reported only rarely. One such interaction, called “tumbling,” involves two birds flying together, one above the other, with the upper bird extending its legs and “falling” onto the lower bird (Mundy et al. 1992). Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) suggest that this behavior...

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